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簡介

國家圖書館(以下簡稱本館)係1933年在南京成立籌備處,草創期間罕有善本圖書。1940至1941年抗戰初期,在館員與愛國志士的努力下,組織「文獻保存同志會」,廣蒐江南等地名家典藏,另外又在川渝等地書肆陸續獲得善本,開始進行整理與編目。勝利還都後,復接收汪偽政府及澤存書庫所搜圖書,併歸典藏,館藏善本圖書質量遂蔚為大觀。遷臺後又購得海內外名家藏書,自此奠定本館在國際古籍典藏與漢學研究之地位。近年,對於中、西文臺灣舊籍文獻的蒐購尤為積極,其他舊籍包括線裝、石印、鉛印、拓片、版畫、古文書、西文百年書報刊與歷史圖像文獻等,更為國內外學術界重視。

在諸多珍藏特藏資料中,以宋、元、明、清善本為主,總計寫本、刻本凡12,000餘部,近13萬冊。近8千部之刻本中,宋版175部、金版5部、元版230部、明版6,000多部,嘉興大藏經1部,其餘為活字版,清代以及朝鮮、日本、安南流傳較稀之刻本。如以冊計算,善本古籍加上普通線裝書古籍,約有善本舊籍中文260,760 冊、西文4,296冊,合計 265,056冊。至2016年底統計,其中宋元本珍籍約400餘部。除此之外,本館所藏6,000多部明版書,以及明清稿本和批校本古籍,更為海內外學界所推重,咸認為是研究中華古文化重要資產。

這批珍藏,除了具有史料價值外,也具有版本、藝術鑒賞的特色;無論從版式到行款、文字到圖像、字體到墨色、鈐印到題款、紙張到裝幀,都反映出古人對版本、印刷、裝幀等工藝美學的追求與堅持。在內容方面,館藏中文善本古籍亦有以下特點: 1、網羅昔日著名藏書樓、藏書家精品,既可探知明代文化風貌,更為研究明代史籍提供許多佐證。2、同一名家著述,往往蒐集若干不同版本,足資學者校勘。3、同一書相同版本常藏有數部,經過對照,凡書賈作偽,即易確定。4.、明代文集和史料最為豐富,《千頃堂書目》、《四庫全書總目》所未著錄的,不在少數。

本館自1990年啟動文獻資訊化後,有鑒於館藏古籍的價值性與重要性,遂由特藏文獻組訂定計畫,除持續進行文獻整理與建置數位化。2002年國家型數位典藏計畫(後發展為「數位典藏與數位學習國家型科技計畫」)啟動後,為進一步便利學者運用國圖特藏資源,自2003年又陸續建置進行古籍數位化與古籍數位化國際合作計畫,包括「古籍影像檢索系統」、「中文古籍聯合目錄」、「金石拓片檢索系統」、「家譜聯合目錄」、「標點善本題跋集錄」等系統,為日後全文檢索進行前置作業。2013年國圖又將前述系統整合為「古籍與特藏文獻資源」資料庫。(http://rbook.ncl.edu.tw/NCLSearch/),透過平台提供使用者瀏覽及檢索、本館古籍數位典藏各項服務。至2019年底為止,系統所收詮釋資料(或稱後設資料metadata)計有845,094筆,另外已完成上傳11,777部珍貴古籍數位化影幅,內容涵蓋國寶、重要古物古籍、敦煌卷子,以及宋、金、元版古籍、重要稿本、鈔本、批校本、彩繪本、明代重要文集、戲曲小說版畫刊本等,累計珍貴古籍影像約6,990,963葉、金石拓片影像20,746幅。為嘉惠學界,本系統所收之影像已於2017年1月18日正式對外開放,並採台灣 CREATIVE COMMONS (姓名標示─非商業性─禁止改作 3.0),祈使文化傳播更為便捷,擴展臺灣漢學研究資源。

在國際合作方面,本館近幾年來積極主導國際合作古籍數位化古籍聯合目錄之建置計畫。自1990年代後期起,隨著數位科技的快速發展,各國政府皆致力於以數位典藏方式保存重要文化資產。本館為掌握散佚海外重要中文善本古籍文獻,逐年調查海外各國中文善本古籍文獻存藏及數位典藏現況,以互惠合作方式,建置「中文古籍聯合目錄」資料庫,與更多善本古籍典藏單位建立實質合作關係。至2019年底止,已有83所國內、外機構參與本計畫,總計收有逾75萬筆目錄。

在建構目錄資料庫之同時,本館針對國內古籍研究資源無法取得部分全文影像之缺憾,尋求海外古籍數位化合作單位,利用臺灣卓越數位化技術與經驗,建立國際互惠合作模式。現階段已完成與美國國會圖書館、華盛頓大學圖書館、加拿大多倫多大學圖書館、法國國家圖書館、柏克萊加州大學圖書館、加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學圖書館、韓國國家圖書館的數位化作業,2019年至2020年亦持續進行與美國普林斯頓大學東亞圖書館數位化合作。與各單位合作的掃描的珍本古籍館藏特色如下:

  1. 北美地區以美國國會圖書館為主,其收藏善本約3,500部最為大宗,包括宋元版11部、太平天國書10種、永樂大典41冊及明人個人文集226種,其餘尚有若干罕見的稿本,另藏中國方志2,939部,家譜400餘部,以上全部近7,000種;而版本自宋迄清初,其中以明代奏議、文集具有價值,另該館所藏明清地方史料及清版古籍也頗有特色,同為政治、社會、經濟、文學以及地方史研究的重要史料。
  2. 美國華盛頓大學圖書館所藏罕見的錢謙益遺著及其他清季善本詩文集、洛克所藏之中國西南地方志、華大館藏明版書錄等。
  3. 美國柏克萊加州大學館藏宋元刻及明代藏書家劉承幹嘉業堂之藏書。
  4. 多倫多大學圖書館館藏宋元明清重要善本古籍。該館宋版書《柳宗元文集》為1126年刻本,距今近千年,堪稱無價之寶;《六壬圖像》書系是僅存於世的孤本書。
  5. 法國國家圖書館則以藏小說戲曲古籍相關資料為主,甚具研究價值。
  6. 加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學典藏豐富之中文古籍,尤以1959年購入之蒲坂藏書(Puban Collection)為其鎮館之寶,多為廣東著名南州書樓舊藏,包括多種學科之豐富資料,堪稱北美最卓越之中文藏書之一。
  7. 韓國國家圖書館典藏超過4千種古籍,其中2,134種古書,此類由古代朝鮮刊印的圖書,由於內容訛誤較少,且往往保存中國已失傳的古書或某部書的較佳版本,深具學術與研究價值。
  8. 普林斯頓大學東亞圖書館收藏中文善本古籍約1,100部,豐富的藏書量於美洲大學圖書館中名列前茅,藏品年代橫跨宋、元、明、清,尤以醫藥學理、佛教經典、文學著錄方面的收藏為多。

授權方式

姓名標示─非商業性─禁止改作
			本授權請參考網頁下說明

本系統允許使用者重製、散布、傳輸著作,但不得為商業目的之使用,亦不得修改該著作。

使用時必須按照著作人指定的方式表彰其姓名,如:

(漢)司馬遷撰,《史記》明正德戊寅(十三年,1518)建陽令邵宗周刊本十六年(1521)劉氏慎獨齋校訂本,國家圖書館典藏 (典藏號: 01294)          

姓名標示─非商業性─禁止改作

The establishment of NCL’s special collections was originally derived from the NCL’s Preparation Office set up in 1933 in Nanjing. Soon after, the Ministry of Education handed over to the Office a collection of books numbering some 46,000 volumes and more than 1,000 Qing dynasty palace examination scripts, which formed the basis of NCL’s special collections. In the early 1940s, as an effort to protect rare books from the destruction and threat of the war, the library founded a concealed “Comrade’s Association for the Preservation of Documents” (Wenxian baocun tonzhihui) for saving and purchasing rare books. After the war ended, these scholars’ enormous accomplishment of book saving, constituted the major and most significant part of NCL’s special collections.

The special collections of National Central Library (NCL) range from bronze and stone rubbings, Dunhuang scrolls, rare and exquisite Chinese books made before 1795, and thread-bound volumes produced between 1796 and 1911. The rare books amount to approximately 12,900 titles and more than 130,000 volumes from the Song (960-1279) to Qing (1636-1912) dynasties, especially with a rich anthology of Ming prints. The thread-bound books total more than 9,700 titles and 110,000 volumes. Among those rare books, 40 titles (303 volumes) have been identified by Taiwan’s Cultural Heritage Preservation Act as national treasures.

The abundant substance of NCL’s special collections provide the public and academics with valuable cultural heritage and research resources. In addition to literary and cultural value, the varied editions of NCL’s special collections further offer significant materials for textual criticism, studies of bibliography, history and aesthetics of printing, book making, publishing, as well as history of learning. Overall, NCL’s rich collection of Chinese ancient texts and rare books provides a broad spectrum of sources for the understanding of imperial China’s literary, cultural, ethical, social and economic activities, therefore make it precious and highly-valued.

After relocated to Taiwan in 1949, the NCL continued to obtain materials through purchase and donation from private collectors and public institutions. With the progress of technology and globalization, until now the library has developed various kinds of technological services which include microfilm, reproductions of ancient books, online image system and so forth, thus make the library’s special collections more accessible to public and demonstrated its important role in social education and cultural preservation.

As NCL’s special collections are expanding, NCL has been enthusiastic at making the collected items be digitized in the following online database entries, which include:

  1. Digital Images Database: There are over 7 million digitized images in the NCL special collections, including: special collections (rare books, stone and bronze rubbings, ancient legal contracts, and genealogies); manuscripts of famous persons.
  2. Union Catalog: In 1998, the NCL created the Union Catalog of Ancient Chinese Books in Taiwan. Later, this was expanded and changed to the Rare Books & Special Collections Database. From 2012 to the present, over 83 cooperating libraries are working together to expand the union catalog. Over 750,000 records have been created.
  3. International Collaborations of NCL’s Digital Image Database: Since 2005, the NCL has been actively cooperating with world renowned libraries to digitize rare Chinese books. As rare and ancient Chinese books are an important world legacy, their preservation has important implications in cultural heritage, research, and civilization. The NCL provides its expertise and experience to help foreign libraries digitize their holdings of original copies of Chinese rare books that have made their way overseas. These cooperative projects allow the NCL to help preserve these important works while acquiring the rights to use the digitized materials. Cooperating institutions number 4,412, including the U.S. Library of Congress, the University of Washington Library, UC Berkeley Library, University of Toronto Library, Bibliothèque nationale de France, and University of British Columbia. Now a total of 3 million images of important rare Chinese books have been digitized. These cooperative projects are highly beneficial for researchers in Taiwan with limited resources, as well as for promoting Taiwan’s influence in Chinese studies worldwide.
  4. There are other online database systems in reference to NCL’s special collections, within is “online exhibition of special collections” website consisting of the records of NCL’s special collection’s exhibitions over the years, publications, electronic books, and knowledge about ancient books and their restoration techniques.
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